Theobroma cacao,also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree is a small evergreen tree of height 4 metre -8 metre,that belong to the family ,Malvaceae.The tree is native to the deep tropical region of the Americas.
The fruit,called a cacao pod,is ovoid , 15cm to 30 cm long (5.9 inch-11.8 inch) and 8cm to 10 cm wide (3.1 inch -3.9 inch).It ripens from colour yellow to orange and weighs about 500 g when ripe.
The pod contains 20 seeds to 60 seeds,usually called beans embedded in a white pulp.
The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate.
By 2016,cocoa beans were cultivated on roughly 10,196,725 hectares worldwide.
Cocoa beans are grown by large agroindustrial plantations and small producers,the bulk of production coming from millions of farmers with small plots.
A tree begins to bear fruit when it is four to five years old.
A mature tree may have 6000 flowers in a year,yet only about 20 pods.
In 2017,world production of cocoa beans was 5.2 million tonnes,led by Ivory Coast(2,034,000 tonnes),Ghana ( 883,652 tonnes) , Indonesia (659,776) and Nigeria (328,263) tonnes of cocoa beans.