Overcrowding can be defined as a situation that occurs when the size of a population increases to a point where the resources in the environment are unable to support all the numbers in the population.In other words, overcrowding occurs where there is an increase in the population of a particular area.This reduces the space available for each individual species in the population.
Population can be defined as the total number of organism of the same species occupying a particular area at a particular time.
Population density is the number of individual organism per unit area or volume of the habitat.
Pd= Total population/Area of habitat.
Factors Affecting Population Size.
The factors include the following:
1.Natality or birth rate in population.
2.Motality or death rate:brings about a decrease in population.
4 Emigration:Here organisms leave a particular area permanently.This brings about a decrease in the population size.
Factors That May Cause Overcrowding.
2.Increase in birth rate.
3.Increase in food supply
4.Decrease in death rate.
5.Immigration and Emigration.
6.Lack of dispersal by plants
7.Absence of predators.
8.Increase in survival
Effects of Overcrowding
Overpopulation in a habitat may lead to:
Water shortage, Limited space, Competition,Spread of diseases,Predation, Organisms
Adaptation To Avoid Overcrowding
1.Territorial behavior: This is a natural means to avoid overcrowding in animals.Some mammals,lizards,birds establish territory.The ability to claim the territory succession ensure they have sufficient space,food,mating partners and parental care.Their establishment of territories ensure there is no overcrowding.
2.Dispersal of seeds and fruits