An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment,interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one another,
animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposes release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.
Ecosystems are controlled by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Unlike external factors, internal factors are controlled, for example, decomposition, root competition, shading, disturbance,succession, and the types of species present.