What is Deliquescent
Deliquescent substances are solid matter that can get dissolved by absorbing water vapor. The resulting solution is an aqueous solution. This process is known as deliquescence. These deliquescent substances have a high affinity for water.
Humid environments are highly concentrated with water vapor. Therefore, deliquescent substances can easily undergo deliquescence and form solutions by absorbing a high amount of water vapor when they are placed in a humid environment.Most common examples of deliquescent substances include some salts; for example, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, calcium chloride, etc. These substances can be used as desiccants. When the water vapor inside a container has to be removed in order to stop a particular chemical reaction, these substances can be kept inside the container.
Efflorescent substances are solids that can undergo spontaneous loss of water from hydrated salts. Hydrated salts are inorganic salts containing water molecules combined in a definite ratio. These salts can lose these water molecules when kept outside. This process is known as efflorescence.
Efflorescence occurs when the aqueous vapor pressure of the hydrate is greater than the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air. Efflorescent substances include most hydrated salts. Examples include Na2SO4.10H2O, Na2CO3.10H2O, and FeSO4. A common example of efflorescence is drying of cement.
Hygroscopic substances are solids that can absorb or adsorb water from its surroundings. When water vapor is absorbed by hygroscopic substances, the water molecules are taken into t
Some examples are Zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), honey, silica gel.