When designing a network for an organization as a network engineer, you must put into consideration the various network topologies for your network design to become active. Topology describes the way various devices are connected in the network. These topologies are Bus topology, Token Ring topology and Star topology.
Bus Topology: This topology connects switches, routers, hubs, host e.t.c with a cable in a line in the network. This why it is also called linear topology.
Token Ring Topology: All devices in the network are connected in a ring.
Star Topology: This topology is widely accepted as the standard topology for network designs all over the world. Star topology has centralized switch or hub while other devices such as host computers connect to the switch in the network.
Tree or Hierarchical Topology: The type of Topology in which a central 'root' node, the top level of the hierarchy, is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy i.e., the second level, with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node, while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy, , i.e., the third level, connected to it, also with a point-to-point link, the top level central 'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy – the hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical, each node in the network having a specific fixed number, f, of nodes connected. The following factors are considered while selecting a topology:
4. Bandwidth capacity
5. Ease of installation
6. Ease of troubleshooting